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The devices and their effectiveness are all subject of clinical studies, published in peer-reviewed journals comparing the ES Complex scans to established gold standards.

1. Lewis JE, Tannenbaum SL, Gao J, et al. "Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments", Dove Press, Medical Devices: Evidence and Research, (2011);4:169–177.


2. Chaim EA, Gobato RC. "New approach to beta cell function screening by nitric oxide assessment of obese individuals at the population level",Int J Gen Med. (2012);5:449-54.


3. Chaim E A, Gobato R C, Carvalho Ramos M. "Correlation between HOMA2 and HbA1c with algorithms derived from bio-impedance and spectrophotometric devices". Accepted for publication in Obesity Surgery (May 18 2012).


4. Maarek, A. "Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development", Dove Press, Medical Devices: Evidence and Research, (2012); 5:23-30.


5. de Abreu, DS. "Bioimpedance and chronoamperometry as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer", Cancer Manag Res. (2011); 3:109-16.


6. Aleexev V.G, Kuznecova L.V. "Bioimpedance application in Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SRI) treatment monitoring", Psychology Research and Behavior Management, (2011); 4:81-86


7. Caudal F. "New marker using bioimpedance technology in screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children as an adjunct to conventional diagnostic methods", Psychol. Res. Behav. Manag. (2011);4:113-7


Literature Review

The use of the technologies in the ES Complex system is well established in published, peer-reviewed literature. The following articles provide independent evidence of the value of electro-sensor/bio-impedance screening in the medical field:


1. Millasseau S.C., Kelly R.P., Ritter J.M., et al. "Determination of age-related increases in large artery stiffness by digital pulse contour analysis". The Biochemical Society and the Medical Research Society, Clinical Science. (2002);103:371–377


2. Williams I.L., Wheatcroft S.B., Shah A.M., et al. "Obesity, atherosclerosis and the vascular endothelium: mechanisms of reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in obese humans". Nature Publishing Group, International Journal of Obesity. (2002);26:754–764


3. Stoickov V., Ilic S., Deljanin Ilic M., et al. "Impact of diabetes on heart rate variability and left ventricular function in patients after myocardial infarction". Medicine and Biology. (2005, 12); 3:130-134.


4. Tsuji H., Larson M.G., Venditti Jr. F.J., et al.(The Framingham Heart Study), "Impact of Reduced Heart Rate Variability on Risk for Cardiac Events". Circulation. (1996); 94:2850-2855.


5. Schroeder E.B., Chambless L.E., Liao D., et al. "Diabetes, Glucose, Insulin, and Heart Rate Variability (The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study)". Diabetes Care. (2005); 28:668–674.


6. Otsuka T., Kawada T., Katsumata M., et al. "Independent Determinants of Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram among Various Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Men". Hypertens. Res. (2007); 30:1211–1218.


7. Bortolotto L.A., Blacher J., Kondo T., et al. "Assessment of Vascular Aging and Atherosclerosis in Hypertensive Subjects: Second Derivative of Photoplethysmogram versus Pulse Wave Velocity". American Journal of Hypertension. (2000); 13:165–171.


8. Rand S., Petrofsky J.S., Zimmerman G., et al. "Diabetes: Sweat Response and Heart Rate Variability During Electrical Stimulation in Controls and People With Diabetes". The Journal of Applied Research. (2008); 8:48-54.


9. Patterson M.J., Galloway S.D.R., Nimmo M.A. "Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males". Experimental Physiology. (2000); 85.6:869—875.


10. Lewis B.S., Armstrong T.G., Everson R.C., et al. "Predictive Value of the Systolic Time Intervals in Primary Myocardial Disease". Chest. (1973); 64:431-438.


11. Kitchiner D.J., Lewis B.S., Gotsman M.S. "Systolic Time Intervals in Mitral Incompetence". Chest. (1973); 64:711-718


12. Wanderman K.L., Hayek Z., Ovsyshcher I. "Systolic Time Intervals in Adolescents: Normal Standards for Clinical Use and Comparison with Children and Adults". Circulation. (1981); 63,1:204-209.

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